APPLICATION :As antifeedant for chewing and sucking pests.GENERAL
It is an effective formula to control chewing and sucking pests on cereal and similar crops, based on natural bitters and castor extract incorporated in surfactant media.There is no toxic ingredient in the formula and as such it is totally safe to human, pets and the environment. It effectively controls BROWN PLANT HOPPER on paddy.
Description : Viscous liquid. Odour : Specific. Storage stability : Minimum 24 monthsCOMPOSITION
Natural bitters suspended in natural oils : 40.00% (min.) Salts of unsaturated aliphatic carboxylic acids : 40.00% (min.) Emulsifiers & media : 20.00% (max.) Total : 100.00%MODE OF ACTION
Insects do not feed on the crop due to its antifeedant properties and they leave the plants quickly.
DILUTION :1.5 to 2 ml per liter of water (depends on infestation rate).RECOMMENDATION
Crop Target Pests Paddy Brown Plant Hopper Cotton Mealy bugs, Aphids & Ash weevil.
BROWN PLANT HOPPER (Nilaparvatalugens)Damage to Plants
The adult females are active at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 32 °C. Macropterous females can survive more than males at varying temperatures. The adults usually live for 10-20 days in the summer and 30-50 days during autumn. The macropterous forms or the long-winged are more attracted to light trap. The most number of catch occurs during the full moon.Causative Agent
BPH adult is brownish black with yellowish brown body. It has a distinct white band on its Mesonotum and dark brown outer sides. The adults exist in two forms, macropterous and brachypterous. Macropterous adults or long-winged have normal front and hind wings, whereas brachypterous forms or the short-winged have reduced hind wings. A prominent tibial spur is present on the third leg.
The nymph has triangular head with a narrow vertex. Its body is creamy white with a pale brown tinge. Mature nymph is 2.99 mm long. It has a prominent median line from the base of the vertex to the end of its metathorax where it is the widest. This line crosses at a right angle to the partition line between the prothorax and mesothorax. The eggs are crescent-shaped and 0.99 mm long. Newly laid eggs are whitish. They turn darker when about to hatch. Before egg hatching, two distinct spots appear, representing the eyes of the developing nymph. Some of the eggs are united near the base of the flat egg cap and others remain free. BPH adult is brownish black with a yellowish brown body. It has very distinct white band on its mesonotum with dark brown outer sides. It has pale yellow to light brown cheeks. The adult exhibits two body forms. The males are all macropterous or long-winged and the females are both macropterous and brachypterous or short-winged. The adult is 2.6-2.9 mm long.
The apex of its front wing has an un-branched band. The hind tibia is noticeable because of its distinct movable spur.Neonate nymph is white to light yellow and 0.8 mm long. It has pink to red eyes. With age, the nymph becomes grayish with white markings on the thorax and abdomen of the creamy body. The mature nymph is 2.1 mm long. A distinct white band on its thorax starts to appear.
Newly laid eggs are creamy white. They are elongate and very curved. A single egg measures 0.9 mm long and 0.2 mm wide. With age, the eggs become darker and develop two distinct spots that represent the eyes of the developing hopper. Although there are many plants listed as alternate hosts to BPH, none of them was able to support a population.
MECHANISM OF DAMAGE
Both the nymphs and adults of the brown plant hopper insert their sucking mouthparts into the plant tissue to remove plant sap from phloem cells. During feeding, BPH secretes feeding sheaths into the plant tissue to form feeding tube or feeding sheaths. The removal of plant sap and the blockage of vessels by the feeding tube sheaths cause the tillers to dry and turn brown or a condition called hopper burn.